Document type: National Hydrogen Study
Released: June 2021
Released: October 2022
The ‘Study of Hydrogen Imports and Downstream Applications for Singapore’ was jointly commissioned by the National Climate Change Secretariat (NCCS), Singapore Economic Development Board (EDB) and Energy Market Authority (EMA).
The study noted that, given Singapore’s limited renewable energy resources, it is challenging for Singapore to produce green hydrogen at scale using domestic green electricity. As such, Singapore would need to explore various supply pathways for price-competitive low-carbon hydrogen.
The NCCS, EDB and EMA are studying whether hydrogen can be imported via ships or pipes, or whether hydrogen can be produced in a low-carbon way domestically.
The study also found that other technical and economic challenges could hinder widespread hydrogen use, including the need for extensive infrastructural support for the transport, storage and use of the gas.
Following the study, various sectors in Singapore will further examine how hydrogen can be used in various industries. The Maritime and Port Authority (MPA), for example, has announced a centre to focus Singapore’s efforts on maritime decarbonisation – the Global Centre for Maritime Decarbonisation (GCMD) together with six other founding partners.
Key findings of the study can be found in a joint press release from several Government bodies (see ANNEX A).
‘Singapore’s National Hydrogen Strategy’ indicates five areas where national efforts to unlock hydrogen potential in Singapore will focus:
- Experimenting with the use of advanced hydrogen technologies at the cusp of commercial readiness through pathfinder projects
- Investing in R&D to unlock key technological bottlenecks
- Pursuing international collaborations to enable supply chains for low-carbon hydrogen
- Undertake long-term land and infrastructure planning, and
- Supporting workforce training and development of our broader hydrogen economy
The strategy notes that Singapore will pace its hydrogen deployment and infrastructure development in line with technological and global progress.
The strategy reviews potential for hydrogen use by sector; key observations include:
- Referencing a 2022 study by a group of energy industry experts commissioned by the EMA to make recommendations on how Singapore can decarbonise the power sector, that hydrogen is a promising low-carbon solution that can be scaled up and contribute to the power sector’s zero-emissions target by 2050; the referenced study noted that hydrogen could be a major component of Singapore’s 2050 fuel-mix, depending on technological developments and the extent of international cooperation in the low-carbon trade. The strategy assesses that hydrogen has the potential to supply up to 50% of Singapore’s projected electricity demand by 2050 (depending on technology developments in the intervening period).
- Opportunities for Singapore, as a global maritime and aviation hub, to play an important role in decarbonisation of these sectors, especially through transitioning to lower carbon fuels (such as biofuels, methanol and ammonia). In maritime, for example, the strategy highlights early efforts the MPA has undertaken in supporting a transition to ammonia bunkering.
In October 2021, under the Low-Carbon Energy Research Funding Initiative (LCER FI), the Singapore Government has awarded SGD$55 million to support 12 research, development and demonstration projects on low-carbon energy technology solutions. Funds awarded are from the SGD$49 million LCER FI announced in October 2020 with additional funding support from the Research, Innovation and Enterprise 2025 (RIE2025) budget.
The aim of the 12 awarded projects is to improve the technical and economic feasibility of implementing low-carbon technologies that support the decarbonisation of Singapore’s power and industry sectors, across two key areas: hydrogen and carbon capture, utilisation and storage (CCUS).
Updated: November 2022
Uploaded: January 2023