Coastal extremes tools and data

Tide gauges and wave buoys provide the most direct observational record of extreme sea levels at the coast.


See the Tide Gauge section and in particular the GESLA data collection for sea level extremes observations.

We have deployed 4 Sofar spotter buoys to measure wave characteristics off the coast of Mandurah (south of Perth), WA. Live data from these buoys is shown below.

Sofar spotter buoys near Mandurah, WA

Sofar spotter buoys near Mandurah, WA

Sofar spotter buoys at Mandurah, WA: timeseries plots

Sofar spotter buoys at Mandurah, WA: latest data

These buoys are supported by the Bluelink Partnership: a collaboration between the Australian Department of Defence, Bureau of Meteorology and CSIRO.


  • Blake Seers has written an RShiny app called Windfetch, which calculates potential winds which may drive extreme sea states at a given coastal location.
  • Julian O’Grady has published this Code to predict future extreme significant wave heights globally, in conjunction with O’Grady, Julian; Hemer, Mark; McInnes, Kathy; Trenham, Claire; Stephenson, Alec; Seers, Blake (2021): Projected incremental changes to extreme wind-driven wave heights for the twenty-first century. v1. CSIRO. Data Collection.
  • We have developed Canute 3*, a sea level calculator for projections based on tide gauges or climate model data, combined with statistical analysis and additional data, using Rshiny. Julian O’Grady presented a webinar on the tools in March 2019, available through NESP’s Climate Hub. The previous version, Canute2, operated by the Antarctic Climate & Ecosystems CRC also remains available at this time. Please note each version has a separate registration process.

Canute 3.1 includes Still Water Level calculations based on tide gauges, coastal models, and *new* beach wave setup; for both AR4 and AR5 emissions scenarios.

*DISCLAIMER: The data available in this tool are generated through numerical modelling performed by CSIRO based on a range of input datasets to help communicate risks associated with sea level rise and total water level change. All information and data found in this tool was generated for research purposes. While every effort has been made to ensure data accuracy, the developers make no warranty (expressed or implied) regarding accuracy, completeness, function or capability of the tool and associated data. The data is not provided as professional advice, and the user assumes any risk associated with use, possession or reliance on content for decision making. The developers expressly disclaim liability for any loss arising from use of this tool and the information contained therein. The models incorporated here are general in nature and more detailed studies may be required for individual regions.

  • CoastAdapt contains regional information on extreme sea levels, including future sea level rise for every coastal local council in Australia.