This page is about our technical research on blockchain. See this page for our reports on how blockchain technology could be used across government and industry in Australia to deliver productivity benefits and drive local innovation.

Contact: Mark Staples (, Shiping Chen (, Xiwei (Sherry) Xu (


Blockchain is an emerging technology for decentralized and transactional data sharing across a large network of untrusted participants. It enables new forms of distributed systems, where participants can find agreements on their shared states without trusting a central authority or any particular participates. Our group is mainly working on three directions, including designing with blockchain, analyzing and improving trustworthy of blockchain, and legal reasoning with Smart contracts on blockchain.

Overview of Block Chain


Research Capabilities

  • Designing with Blockchain
    • Blockchain as a component in system design
    • Impact of using blockchain on the quality attributes of the system
  • Defining and using smart contracts
    • Model-driven smart contract development
    • Declarative smart contracts for faster development, analysis and auditing
    • Visualization
  • Trustworthy Blockchain
    • Empirical studies on popular public blockchains
    • Formal studies
    • Live monitoring



Please refer to the following linked posters for details.


Selected reports


  • Visualization of public Ethereum blockchain
  • Open data registry
  • Business process running on blockchain
  • Macrokey



  • Ethviewer (Beta): A beta release of real time monitoring of the Ethereum Blockchain


Up to 24 March, 2019

  • Architecture for Blockchain Applications
    Xiwei Xu, Ingo Weber, and Mark Staples
    Springer, 2019
  • Dynamic role binding in blockchain-based collaborative business processes
    Orlenys López-Pintado, Marlon Dumas, Luciano García-Bañuelos, and Ingo Weber
    CAISE’19: International Conference on Advanced Information Systems Engineering, Rome, Italy, July 2019
  • Digital-Physical Parity for Food Fraud Detection
    Sin Kuang Lo, Xiwei Xu, Chen Wang, Ingo Weber, Paul Rimba, Qinghua Lu, and Mark Staples
    ICBC’19: International Conference on Blockchain, San Diego, USA, June, 2019
  • A platform architecture for multi-tenant blockchain-based systems
    Ingo Weber, Qinghua Lu, An Binh Tran, Amit Deshmukh, Marek Gorski, and Markus Strazds
    ICSA’19: IEEE International Conference on Software Architecture, Hamburg, Germany, April 2019
  • Designing blockchain-based applications: A case study for imported product traceability
    Xiwei Xu, Qinghua Lu, Yue Liu, Liming Zhu, Haonan Yao, Athanasios V Vasilakos
    Future Generation Computer Systems. Published March 2019
  • Design Pattern as a Service for Blockchain Applications
    Qinghua Lu, Xiwei Xu, Yue Liu, Weishan Zhang
    ICDMW’2018: IEEE International Conference on Data Mining Workshops, November 2018
  • Lorikeet: A model-driven engineering tool for blockchain-based business process execution and asset management
    An Binh Tran, Qinghua Lu, and Ingo Weber
    BPM’18: International Conference on Business Process Management, Demo track, Sydney, NSW, Australia, September 2018
  • Platform-Independent Secure Blockchain-Based Voting System
    Bin Yu, Joseph Liu, Amin Sakzad, Surya Nepal, Ron Steinfeld, Paul Rimba, and Man Ho Au
    ISC’18: Information Security Conference, September 2018
  • Quantifying the cost of distrust: Comparing blockchain and cloud services for business process execution
    Paul Rimba, An Binh Tran, Ingo Weber, Mark Staples, Alexander Ponomarev, and Xiwei Xu
    Information Systems Frontiers, August 2018
  • A Pattern Language for Blockchain-based Applications
    Xiwei Xu, Cesare Pautasso, Liming Zhu, Qinghua Lu, Ingo Weber
    EuroPLOP’18: European Conference on Pattern Languages of Programs, Kloster Irsee, Germany, July 2018
  • AODV-based Routing for Payment Channel Networks
    Philipp Hoenisch and Ingo Weber
    ICBC’18: International Conference on Blockchain. June 30, 2018, Seattle, USA
  • How do machine learning, robotic process automation and blockchains affect the human factor in business process management?
    Jan Mendling, Gero Decker, Richard Hull, Hajo A. Reijers, and Ingo Weber
    Communications of the Association for Information Systems (CAIS). Peer-reviewed panel paper.
  • Blockchains for business process management – challenges and opportunities
    Jan Mendling, Ingo Weber, Wil Van Der Aalst, Jan Vom Brocke, Cristina Cabanillas, Florian Daniel, Søren Debois, Claudio Di Ciccio, Marlon Dumas, Schahram Dustdar, Avigdor Gal, Luciano García-Bañuelos, Guido Governatori, Richard Hull, Marcello La Rosa, Henrik Leopold, Frank Leymann, Jan Recker, Manfred Reichert, Hajo A. Reijers, Stefanie Rinderle-Ma, Andreas Solti, Michael Rosemann, Stefan Schulte, Munindar P. Singh, Tijs Slaats, Mark Staples, Barbara Weber, Matthias Weidlich, Mathias Weske, Xiwei Xu, and Liming Zhu
    ACM Transactions on Management Information Systems (TMIS), 9(1):4:1-4:16. Peer-reviewed research commentary. February 2018.
  • Towards verifying ethereum smart contract bytecode in Isabelle/HOL
    Sidney Amani, Myriam Bégel, Maksym Bortin and Mark Staples
    2018 7th ACM SIGPLAN International Conference on Certified Programs and Proofs, Los Angeles, USA, January 2018.
  • [PDF] On availability for blockchain-based systems
    Ingo Weber, Vincent Gramoli, Mark Staples, Alex Ponomarev, Ralph Holz, An Binh Tran and Paul Rimba.
    2017 IEEE International Symposium on Reliable Distributed Systems (SRDS’17), Hong Kong, China, September 2017.
  • [PDF] Optimized execution of business processes on blockchain,
    Luciano García-Bañuelos, Alexander Ponomarev, Marlon Dumas, and Ingo Weber.
    15th International Conference on Business Process Management (BPM’17), Barcelona, Spain, September 2017.
  • [PDF] Caterpillar: A blockchain-based business process management system,
    Orlenys López-Pintado, Luciano García-Bañuelos, Marlon Dumas, and Ingo Weber.
    15th International Conference on Business Process Management (BPM’17), Demo track, Barcelona, Spain, September 2017.
  • Runtime verification for business processes utilizing the Bitcoin blockchain
    Christoph Prybila, Stefan Schulte, Christoph Hochreiner, and Ingo Weber
    Future Generation Computer Systems (FGCS)
  • [PDF] Risks and opportunities for systems using blockchain and smart contracts,
    Mark Staples, Shiping Chen, Sara Falamaki, Alex Ponomarev, Paul Rimba, An Binh Tran, Ingo Weber, Xiwei Xu, and Zhenjiang Zhu.
    Technical report, Data61, CSIRO, Sydney, Australia, June 2017.
  • [PDF] Regerator: a Registry Generator for Blockchain,
    An Binh Tran, Xiwei Xu, Ingo Weber, Mark Staples and Paul Rimba.
    29th International Conference on Advanced Information Systems Engineering (CAISE’17).
  • [PDF] EthDrive: A Peer-to-Peer Data Storage with Provenance,
    Xiao Liang Yu, Xiwei Xu and Bin Liu.
    29th International Conference on Advanced Information Systems Engineering (CAISE’17).
  • [PDF] The Balance Attack or Why Forkable Blockchains are Ill-Suited for Consortium,
    Christopher Natoli and Vincent Gramoli.
    2017 IEEE/IFIP International Conference on Dependable Systems and Networks (DSN’17).
  • [PDF] Blockchain Consensus,
    Tyler Crain, Vincent Gramoli, Michel Raynal, Mikel Larrea.
    Proceedings of AlgoTel 2017.
  • [PDF] A taxonomy of blockchain-based systems for architecture design,
    Xiwei Xu, Ingo Weber, Mark Staples, Liming Zhu, Jan Bosch, Len Bass, Cesare Pautasso and Paul Rimba.
    2017 IEEE International Conference on Software Architecture (ICSA’17), Gothenburg, Sweden, April 2017.
  • [PDF] Comparing blockchain and cloud services for business process execution,
    Paul Rimba, An Binh Tran, Ingo Weber, Mark Staples, Alexander Ponomarev and Xiwei Xu.
    Short paper, 2017 IEEE International Conference on Software Architecture (ICSA’17), Gothenburg, Sweden, April 2017.
  • [PDF] Predicting latency of blockchain-based systems using architectural modelling and simulation,
    Rajitha Yasaweerasinghelage, Mark Staples and Ingo Weber.
    Short paper, 2017 IEEE International Conference on Software Architecture (ICSA’17), Gothenburg, Sweden, April 2017.
  • Using architectural modelling and simulation to predict latency of blockchain-based systems
    Rajitha Yasaweerasinghelage, Mark Staples, and Ingo Weber
    Technical Report 201704, School of Computer Science & Engineering, University of New South Wales, Sydney, NSW 2052, Australia, February 2017
  • [PDF] The Blockchain Anomaly,
    Christopher Natoli, Vincent Gramoli.
    Proceedings of the 15th IEEE International Symposium on Network Computing and Applications (NCA’16), IEEE Oct 2016
  • [PDF] Evaluation of Logic-Based Smart Contracts for Blockchain Systems,
    Idelberg, Florian and Governatori, Guido and Riveret, Regis and Sartor, Giovanni.
    10th International Web Rule Symposium, July, 2016
  • [PDF] New kids on the block: an analysis of modern blockchains,
    Luke Anderson, Ralph Holz, Alexander Ponomarev, Paul Rimba, Ingo Weber.
    Submitted on Jun, 2016
  • [PDF] On the Danger of Private Blockchains,
    Vincent Gramoli
    Workshop on Distributed Cryptocurrencies and Consensus Ledgers (DCCL’16), 2016
  • [PDF] Untrusted business process monitoring and execution using blockchain,
    Ingo Weber, Sherry Xu, Regis Riveret, Guido Governatori, Alexander Ponomarev and Jan Mendling.
    BPM 2016, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil , September, 2016
  • [PDF] The blockchain as a software connector,
    Sherry Xu, Cesare Pautasso, Liming Zhu, Vincent Gramoli, Alexander Ponomarev, An Binh Tran and Shiping Chen.
    WICSA2016, Venice, Italy, April, 2016