# Fire Systems Environmental Testing

Fire detection and alarm system equipment is required by AS 1670.1 to meet the relevant parts of AS (ISO) 7240 series of Australian Standards relevant to their product type or category. Residential-style smoke and heat alarms are required to meet AS 3786 and AS 1603.3, respectively.

Each product standard nominates a test program relevant to the type of equipment covered. The test program is generally divided into two streams:

#### 1. Specific tests for the fire system product type

For example, smoke detectors are subject to smoke sensitivity testing, while heat detectors are subject to heat sensitivity tests. These type-specific tests cover a range of parameters that are relevant only to the category, and may test a range of critical phenomena, e.g. heat detectors are tested for response to slow and fast rates of air temperature rise, from low and high temperature starting points, and emergency loudspeakers are tested for frequency response, sensitivity, impedance, coverage angle and maximum power output.

#### 2. Generic environmental tests for fire systems.

Each of the AS (ISO) 7240 standards includes an “environmental” physical test program that is generally consistent. This test program is included to ensure that life-safety equipment are capable of operating reliably throughout their anticipated lifetime in any environment that may be reasonably exposed to and installed in. These “environmental” tests include climatic type (cold, dry heat, damp heat, SO2 corrosion), mechanical (impact, vibration, shock) and electromagnetic immunity (EMC) tests.

#### Environmental conditioning

To determine whether the product is suitably immune to the applied conditioning, a response behaviour test is selected by the calling Standard to be applied prior, following, and sometimes during, the environmental test.

For example, a point-type smoke detector is tested for response to aspirated paraffin “smoke” prior to and following each of the climatic tests. The ratio of the alarm response (in dB/m, or MIC y) is required to remain within limits defined from its initial value prior to the conditioning. Variation in alarm response behaviour outside these limits constitutes a failure to the applied test, and the product must be re-engineered and retested.

Conceptually, the approach taken by the standards is simple, and replicated across the Australian (AS), International (ISO) and European (EN) standards for fire systems. However, due perhaps to the varying influences of publication date, persons involved, priorities at the time, or other unknown factors, the specifications for each of the environmental conditioning tests across the product (AS 7240 etc) standards varies.

The table below provides an insight into the subtleties and variations in test conditions required to be applied. This table details the test specifications current in Australian Standards in mid-2018. Any correspondence, or lack thereof, to test specifications applied in other standardisation environments or regions (ISO, EN etc) should be very carefully assessed.

#### Laboratory Accreditation

The CSIRO Fire Systems Laboratory is NATA-accredited for the following environmental test methods:

- AS 60068.2.1 (Cold)
- AS 60068.2.2 (Dry Heat)
- AS 60068.2.6 (Vibration, sinusoidal)
- AS 60068.2.30 (Damp heat, cyclic)
- AS 60068.2.75 (Impact)
- AS 60068.2.78 (Damp heat, steady state).

Product Type |
AS (ISO) 7240 Part |
Year |
Amdt |
Parameter |
Climatic Test |
Mechanical Test |
RF Test |
|||||||||

Dry (operational) |
Dry (endurance) |
Cold (operational) |
Damp, cyclic (operational) |
Damp, cyclic (endurance) |
Damp, steady (operational) |
Damp, steady (endurance) |
Impact (operational) |
Vibration (operational) |
Vibration (endurance) |
Shock (operational) |
EMC (operational) |
|||||

Control and Indicating Equipment |
2 |
2004 |
Severity | Manufacturer specified | N/A | 0C | N/A | N/A | 40C, 93%RH | 40C, 93%RH | 0.5 J | 10 Hz to 150 Hz, 0.981 m/s2 (0.1 gn) | 10 Hz to 150 Hz, 4.905 m/s2 (0.5 gn) | N/A | Latest edition at time of evaluation applies | |

Precision | +/- 2C | +/- 3C | +/-2C, +2%/-3%RH | +/-2C, +2%/-3%RH | +/- 0.04 J | – | – | |||||||||

Duration | 16 h | 16 h | 4 days | 21 days | 3 impacts/point | 1 sweep cycle per functional condition, three axes | 20 sweep cycle per functional condition, three axes | |||||||||

Method | AS 60068.2.2 Test B | AS 60068.2.1 Test Ad / Ab | AS 60068-2-78 Test Cab | AS 60068-2-78 Test Cab | AS 60068-2-75 | AS 60068-2-6 | AS 60068-2-6 | EN 50130-4:2011 | ||||||||

Audible Alarm Devices |
3 |
2014 |
Severity | 55C (Type A), 70C (Type B) | 70C (Type B only) | -10C (Type A), -25C (Type B) | Lower: 25C, > 95%RH, Upper: 40C (Type A) or 55C (Type B), 93%RH | Lower: 25C, > 95%RH, Upper: 55C (Type B only), 93%RH | N/A | 40C, 93%RH | 0.5 J | 10 Hz to 150 Hz, 5 m/s2 (~0.5 gn) | 10 Hz to 150 Hz,10 m/s2 (~1 gn) | 6 ms half-size, up to 100 g pk | Dated reference | |

Precision | +/- 2C | +/- 2C | +/- 3C | Lower: +/-3C, Upper +/- 5C (type A), +/- 2C (Type B) +/-3%RH | Lower: +/-3C, Upper +/- 2C (Type B only) +/-3%RH | +/-2C, +/-3%RH | +/- 0.04 J | – | – | – | ||||||

Duration | 16 h | 21 d | 16 h | 2 cycles | 6 cycles | 21 days | 3 impacts/point | 2sweep cycles per axis, three axes | 20 sweep cycle axis, three axes | six directions, three pulses per direction | ||||||

Method | AS 60068.2.2 Test Bb | AS 60068.2.2 Test Bb | AS 60068.2.1 Test Ab | AS 60068-2-30 Variant 1 | AS 60068-2-30 Variant 1 | AS 60068-2-78 Test Cab | AS 60068-2-75 | AS 60068-2-6 Test Fc | AS 60068-2-6 Test Fc | AS 60068-2-27 Test Ea | EN 50130-4:1995 +A1:1998 +A2:2003 | |||||

Power Supply Equipment |
4 |
2004 |
A1:2016 | Severity | Manufacturer specified | N/A | 0C | N/A | N/A | 40C, 93%RH | 40C, 93%RH | 0.5 J | 10 Hz to 150 Hz, 0.981 m/s2 (0.1 gn) | 10 Hz to 150 Hz, 4.905 m/s2 (0.5 gn) | N/A | Latest edition at time of evaluation applies |

Precision | +/- 2C | +/- 3C | +/-2C, +2%/-3%RH | +/-2C, +2%/-3%RH | +/- 0.04 J | – | – | |||||||||

Duration | 16 hr | 16 hr | 4 days | 21 days | 3 impacts/point | 1 sweep cycle per functional condition, three axes | 20 sweep cycle per functional condition, three axes | |||||||||

Method | AS 60068.2.2 Test B | AS 60068.2.1 Test Ad / Ab | AS 60068-2-78 Test Cab | AS 60068-2-78 Test Cab | AS 60068-2-75 | AS 60068-2-6 | AS 60068-2-6 | EN 50130-4:2011 | ||||||||

Point-type heat detectors |
5 |
2004 |
A1:2007 | Severity | N/A | 80C (Class C), 95C (Class D), 110C (Class E), 125C (Class F), 140C (Class G) (no test for Class A1/A2/B) | -10C | Lower: 25C, > 95%RH, Upper: 40C, 93%RH | N/A | N/A | 40C, 93%RH | 1.9 J, 1.5 m/s | 10 Hz to 150 Hz, 5 m/s2 (~0.5 gn) | 10 Hz to 150 Hz,10 m/s2 (~1 gn) | 6 ms half-size, up to 100 g pk | Latest edition at time of evaluation applies |

Precision | +/- 2C | +/- 3C | Lower: +/-3C, Upper: +/- 2C, +/-3%RH | +/-2C, +/-3%RH | +/- 0.1 J, 0.13 m/s | – | – | – | ||||||||

Duration | 21 d | 16 h | 2 cycles | 21 days | 1 impact | 1 sweep cycle per axis, three axes | 20 sweep cycle axis, three axes | six directions, three pulses per direction | ||||||||

Method | AS 60068.2.2 Test Ba / Bb | AS 60068.2.1 Test Ab | AS 60068-2-30 Variant 1 | AS 60068-2-78 Test Cab | Annex F | AS 60068-2-6 Test Fc | AS 60068-2-6 Test Fc | AS 60068-2-27 Test Ea | EN 50130-4:2011 | |||||||

Point-type smoke detectors |
7 |
2004 |
Severity | Lower: 25C, Upper: 40C | N/A | -10C | N/A | N/A | 40C, 93%RH | 40C, 93%RH | 0.5 J | 10 Hz to 150 Hz, 5 m/s2 (~0.5 gn) | 10 Hz to 150 Hz,10 m/s2 (~1 gn) | 6 ms half-size, up to 100 g pk | Latest edition at time of evaluation applies | |

Precision | Lower: +/-5C, Upper +/- 2C | +/- 3C | +/-2C, +/-3%RH | +/-2C, +/-3%RH | +/- 0.04 J | – | – | – | ||||||||

Duration | 2 hr | 16 h | 4 days | 4 days | 3 impacts/point | 1 sweep cycle per axis, three axes | 20 sweep cycle axis, three axes | six directions, three pulses per direction | ||||||||

Method | AS 60068.2.2 Test Bb | AS 60068.2.1 Test Ab | AS 60068-2-78 Test Cab | AS 60068-2-78 Test Cab | AS 60068-2-75 | AS 60068-2-6 Test Fc | AS 60068-2-6 Test Fc | AS 60068-2-27 Test Ea | EN 50130-4:2011 | |||||||

Flame detectors |
10 |
2007 |
Severity | Lower: 25C, Upper: 55C | N/A | -10C | Lower: 25C, > 95%RH, Upper: 40C, 93%RH | N/A | N/A | 40C, 93%RH | 0.5 J | 2 Hz to 10 Hz, 5 m/s2 (~0.5 gn) | 2 Hz to 10 Hz, 10 m/s2 (~1.0 gn) | 6 ms half-size, up to 100 g pk | Latest edition at time of evaluation applies | |

Precision | Lower: +/-5C, Upper +/- 2C | +/- 3C | Lower: +/-3C, Upper: +/- 2C, +/-3%RH | +/-2C, +/-3%RH | +/- 0.04 J | – | – | – | ||||||||

Duration | 2 hr | 16 h | 2 cycles | 4 days | 3 impacts/point | 1 sweep cycle per axis, three axes | 20 sweep cycle axis, three axes | six directions, three pulses per direction | ||||||||

Method | AS 60068.2.2 Test Bb | AS 60068.2.1 Test Ab | AS 60068-2-30 Variant 1 | AS 60068-2-78 Test Cab | AS 60068-2-75 | AS 60068-2-6 Test Fc | AS 60068-2-6 Test Fc | AS 60068-2-27 Test Ea | EN 50130-4:2011 | |||||||

Manual call points |
11 |
2008 |
Severity | 55C (Indoor) 70C (Outdoor) | 70C (Outdoor only) | -10C (Indoor), -25 (Outdoor) | Lower: 25C, > 95%RH, Upper: 40C (Indoor), 55C (Outdoor), 93%RH | Lower: 25C, > 95%RH, Upper: 55C (Outdoor only), 93%RH | N/A | 40C, 93%RH | 1.9 J, 1.5 m/s | 10 Hz to 150 Hz, 5 m/s2 (~0.5 gn) | 10 Hz to 150 Hz,10 m/s2 (~1 gn) | 6 ms half-size, up to 100 g pk | Latest edition at time of evaluation applies | |

Precision | +/- 2C | +/- 2C | +/- 3C | Lower: +/-3C, Upper: +/- 2C, +/-3%RH | Lower: +/-3C, Upper: +/- 2C, +/-3%RH | +/-2C, +/-3%RH | +/- 0.1 J, 0.13 m/s | – | – | – | ||||||

Duration | 16 h | 21 d | 16 h | 2 cycles | 6 cycles | 4 days | 1 impact | 1 sweep cycle per axis, three axes | 20 sweep cycle axis, three axes | six directions, three pulses per direction | ||||||

Method | AS 60068.2.2 Test Bb | AS 60068.2.2 Test Bb | AS 60068.2.1 Test Ab | AS 60068-2-30 Test Db Variant 1 | AS 60068-2-30 Test Db Variant 1 | AS 60068-2-78 Test Cb | Annex C | AS 60068-2-6 Test Fc | AS 60068-2-6 Test Fc | AS 60068-2-27 Test Ea | EN 50130-4:2011 | |||||

Line-type (beam) smoke detectors |
12 |
2007 |
Severity | 55C | N/A | -10C | N/A | N/A | 40C, 93%RH | 40C, 93%RH | 0.5 J | N/A | 10 Hz to 150 Hz,10 m/s2 (~1 gn) | N/A | Latest edition at time of evaluation applies | |

Precision | +/- 2C | +/- 3C | +/-2C, +/-3%RH | +/-2C, +/-3%RH | +/- 0.04 J | – | ||||||||||

Duration | 16 h | 16 h | 4 days | 4 days | 3 impacts/point | 20 sweep cycle axis, three axes | ||||||||||

Method | AS 60068.2.2 Test Bb | AS 60068.2.1 Test Ab | AS 60068-2-78 Test Cab | AS 60068-2-78 Test Cab | AS 60068-2-75 | AS 60068-2-6 Test Fc | EN 50130-4:2011 | |||||||||

Short-circuit isolators |
17 |
2015 |
Severity | 55C (Type A), 70C (Type B) | N/A | -10C | Lower: 25C, > 95%RH, Upper: 40C, 93%RH | N/A | N/A | 40C, 93%RH | 1.9 J, 1.5 m/s | 10 Hz to 150 Hz, 5 m/s2 (~0.5 gn) | 10 Hz to 150 Hz,10 m/s2 (~1 gn) | 6 ms half-size, up to 100 g pk | Dated reference | |

Precision | +/- 2C | +/- 3C | Lower: +/-3C, Upper: +/- 5C, +/-3%RH | +/-2C, +/-3%RH | +/- 0.1 J, 0.13 m/s | – | – | – | ||||||||

Duration | 16 h | 16 h | 2 cycles | 4 days | 1 impact | 2sweep cycles per axis, three axes | 20 sweep cycle axis, three axes | six directions, three pulses per direction | ||||||||

Method | AS 60068.2.2 Test B | AS 60068.2.1 Test A | AS 60068-2-30 Test Db Variant 1 | AS 60068-2-78 Test Cab | Annex C | AS 60068-2-6 Test Fc | AS 60068-2-6 Test Fc | AS 60068-2-27 Test Ea | EN 50130-4:1995 | |||||||

Input/output devices |
18 |
2015 |
Severity | 55C | N/A | -10C | Lower: 25C, > 95%RH, Upper: 40C, 93%RH | N/A | N/A | 40C, 93%RH | 0.5 J | 10 Hz to 150 Hz, 5 m/s2 (~0.5 gn) | 10 Hz to 150 Hz,10 m/s2 (~1 gn) | 6 ms half-size, up to 100 g pk | Dated reference | |

Precision | +/- 2C | +/- 3C | Lower: +/-3C, Upper: +/- 2C, +/-3%RH | +/-2C, +/-3%RH | +/- 0.04 J | – | – | – | ||||||||

Duration | 16 h | 16 h | 2 cycles | 4 days | 3 impacts/point | 1 sweep cycle per axis, three axes | 20 sweep cycle axis, three axes | six directions, three pulses per direction | ||||||||

Method | AS 60068.2.2 Test Bb | AS 60068.2.1 Test Ab | AS 60068-2-30 Test Db Variant 1 | AS 60068-2-78 Test Cab | AS 60068-2-75 | AS 60068-2-6 Test Fc | AS 60068-2-6 Test Fc | AS 60068-2-27 Test Ea | EN 50130-4:1995 +A1:1998 +A2:2003 | |||||||

Aspirating smoke detectors |
20 |
2012 |
Severity | Lower: 25C, Upper: 40C | N/A | -10C (or 5C if spec > 0C) | N/A | N/A | 40C, 93%RH | 40C, 93%RH | 0.5 J | 10 Hz to 150 Hz, 5 m/s2 (~0.5 gn) | 10 Hz to 150 Hz,10 m/s2 (~1 gn) | 6 ms half-size, up to 100 g pk | Dated reference | |

Precision | Lower: +/-5C, Upper +/- 2C | +/- 3C | +/-2C, +/-3%RH | +/-2C, +/-3%RH | +/- 0.04 J | – | – | – | ||||||||

Duration | 2 h | 16 h | 4 d | 21 d | 3 impacts/point | 1 sweep cycle per axis, three axes | 20 sweep cycle axis, three axes | six directions, three pulses per direction | ||||||||

Method | AS 60068.2.2 Test Bb | AS 60068.2.1 Test Ab | AS 60068-2-78 Test Cab | AS 60068-2-78 Test Cab | AS 60068-2-75 | AS 60068-2-6 Test Fc | AS 60068-2-6 Test Fc | AS 60068-2-27 Test Ea | EN 50130-4:1995 +A1:1998 +A2:2003 | |||||||

Visual alarm devices |
23 |
2014 |
Severity | 55C (Type A), 70C (Type B and C) | 70C (Type B only) | -10C (Type A), -25C (Type B) | Lower: 25C, > 95%RH, Upper: 40C (Type A) or 55C (Type B), 93%RH | Lower: 25C, > 95%RH, Upper: 55C (Type B only), 93%RH | N/A | 40C, 93%RH | 0.5 J | 10 Hz to 150 Hz, 5 m/s2 (~0.5 gn) | 10 Hz to 150 Hz,10 m/s2 (~1 gn) | 6 ms half-size, up to 100 g pk | Dated reference | |

Precision | +/- 2C | +/- 2C | +/- 3C | Lower: +/-3C, Upper +/- 5C (type A), +/- 2C (Type B) +/-3%RH | Lower: +/-3C, Upper +/- 2C (Type B only) +/-3%RH | +/-2C, +/-3%RH | +/- 0.04 J | – | – | – | ||||||

Duration | 16 h | 21 d | 16 h | 2 cycles | 6 cycles | 21 d | 3 impacts/point | 2sweep cycles per axis, three axes | 20 sweep cycle axis, three axes | six directions, three pulses per direction | ||||||

Method | AS 60068.2.2 Test Bb | AS 60068.2.2 Test Bb | AS 60068.2.1 Test Ab | AS 60068-2-30 Variant 1 | AS 60068-2-30 Variant 1 | AS 60068-2-78 Test Cab | AS 60068-2-75 Test Eh / Ehb | AS 60068-2-6 Test Fc | AS 60068-2-6 Test Fc | AS 60068-2-27 Test Ea | EN 50130-4:2011 | |||||

Emergency loudspeakers |
24 |
Severity | 55C (Type A), 70C (Type B) | 70C (Outdoor only) | -10C (Indoor), -25 (Outdoor) | Lower: 25C, > 95%RH, Upper: 40C (Type A), 55C (Type B), 93%RH | Lower: 25C, > 95%RH, Upper: 55C (Type B only), 93%RH | N/A | 40C, 93%RH | 0.5 J | 10 Hz to 150 Hz, 5 m/s2 (~0.5 gn) | 10 Hz to 150 Hz,10 m/s2 (~1 gn) | 6 ms half-size, up to 100 g pk | Latest edition at time of evaluation applies | ||

Precision | +/- 2C | +/- 2C | +/- 3C | Lower: +/-3C, Upper: +/- 2C, +/-3%RH | Lower: +/-3C, Upper: +/- 2C, +/-3%RH | +/-2C, +/-3%RH | +/- 0.04 J | – | – | – | ||||||

Duration | 16 h | 21 d | 16 h | 2 cycles | 6 cycles | 21 d | 3 impacts/point | 1 sweep cycle per axis, three axes | 20 sweep cycle axis, three axes | six directions, three pulses per direction | ||||||

Method | AS 60068.2.2 Test Bb | AS 60068.2.2 Test Ba/Bb | AS 60068.2.1 Test Ab/Ad | AS 60068-2-30 Variant 1 | AS 60068-2-30 Variant 1 | AS 60068-2-78 Test Cab | AS 60068-2-75 Test Eh / Ehb | AS 60068-2-6 Test Fc | AS 60068-2-6 Test Fc | AS 60068-2-27 Test Ea | EN 50130-4:2011 | |||||

Product Type |
Standard |
Year |
Amdt |
|||||||||||||

Smoke alarms |
AS 3786 |
2014 |
A1:2015 |
Severity | Lower: 25C, Upper: 40C | N/A | 0C | N/A | N/A | 40C, 93%RH | N/A | 1.9 J, 1.5 m/s | 10 Hz to 150 Hz, 5 m/s2 (~0.5 gn) | 10 Hz to 150 Hz,10 m/s2 (~1 gn) | N/A | Latest edition presumed to apply (not stated) |

Precision | Lower: +/-5C, Upper +/- 2C | +/- 2C | +/-2C, +/-3%RH | +/- 0.1 J, 0.13 m/s | – | – | ||||||||||

Duration | 2 hr | 2 h | 4 d | 1 impact | 1 sweep cycle per axis, three axes | 20 sweep cycle axis, three axes | ||||||||||

Method | AS 60068.2.2 Test Bb | AS 60068.2.1 Test Ab | AS 60068-2-78 Test Cab | Appendix E | AS 60068-2-6 Test Fc | AS 60068-2-6 Test Fc | EN 50130-4:2011 | |||||||||

Heat alarms |
AS 1603.3 |
2018 |
Severity | N/A | N/A | -10C | Lower: 25C, > 95%RH, Upper: 40C, 93%RH | N/A | N/A | N/A | 1.9 J, 1.5 m/s | 10 Hz to 150 Hz, 5 m/s2 (~0.5 gn) | 10 Hz to 150 Hz,10 m/s2 (~1 gn) | N/A | Latest edition presumed to apply (not stated) | |

Precision | +/- 3C | Lower: +/-3C, Upper: +/- 2C, +/-3%RH | +/- 0.1 J, 0.13 m/s | – | – | |||||||||||

Duration | 16 h | 2 cycles | 1 impact | 1 sweep cycle per axis, three axes | 20 sweep cycle axis, three axes | |||||||||||

Method | AS 60068.2.1 Test Ab | AS 60068-2-30 Variant 1 | AS 7240.5 | AS 60068-2-6 Test Fc | AS 60068-2-6 Test Fc | IEC 62599-2:2010 |