Measure category: limit export destinations or use
Measures in this category include:
- Restrict to poor pest habitat
- Restrict to poor time of year
- Restrict end-uses
Note that this resource is a working draft, which is currently being reviewed and updated in collaboration with biosecurity specialists.
Establishment risk is reduced by only allowing consignments to be released at destinations where and when the pest is unlikely to establish if an infested consignment were to arrive, and pests to escape.
Required proof of efficacy
Demonstrate that the risk of establishment is sufficiently low if pests were to escape the consignment, taking into account pest biology, and environmental and seasonal conditions where relevant.
How the measures are certified
Audits of processes and other requirements, noting that some requirements may be outside of the jurisdiction of the exporting NPPO.
How the measures are used
Important considerations in pest risk analysis (PRA). Applicable as phytosanitary measures to importing countries where establishment risks differ in space and time, where internal commodity movement or usage can be restricted, or to commodities that require post-border processing.
Relationship with other measures
Where export destination or use greatly reduces establishment risk it can in turn reduce the requirements aimed at reducing infestation risks.
Consignment stages where the measures can be applied
|Restricted to poor pest habitat||No||No||Yes|
|Poor time of year||No||No||Yes|
Measures in detail: limit export destination or uses
|Measure||Required proof of efficacy||How the measure is certified||How the measure is used||Relationship to other measures|
|Restricted to poor pest habitat|
Export destinations and usage restricted to areas where establishment risks are expected to be low, as determined by environmental conditions, host availability and other factors.
|Establishment risks will depend on the biology of the organism, including its’ developmental status after arrival and its ability to survive until the right conditions and breeding hosts become available. Risks can be informed by bioclimatic modelling, habitat requirements (such as for pupation), and a detailed understanding of the environmental conditions and host availability in the receiving area. An understanding of the commodity supply chain post-arrival would assist in this risk assessment.||Audit of destination of exports and post-border supply chain movement.||Habitat suitability for pest establishment is considered during PRA, with no or limited phytosanitary measures required if establishment risks are low. Use as a phytosanitary measure most commonly restrict movement to jurisdictions (or specific ports) within an importing country where habitat is poor. For example, where hosts are not available, or climate is not suitable. This measure is difficult to implement in environmentally diverse countries where there is little internal control on where imported consignments are sent.||Can be combined with measures that reduce infestation rates in commodities. Can be considered together with restricting exports to poor time of year.|
|Poor time of year|
Export destinations and usage can be limited spatially to times of year when establishment risks are expected to be low, as determined by pest phenology, environmental conditions, host availability and other factors.
|See “restricted to poor pest habitat”. For some pests (e.g. with environmental cues for diapause release) the effect on establishment risk of moving between hemispheres will need to be considered.||Audit of timing of exports and post-border supply chain movement||Seasonal likelihood of pest establishment is considered during PRA. This is particularly relevant for pests on commodities that cross hemispheres that may be exposed to counter-seasonal conditions that reduce establishment risks (Eschen et al. 2015). For some commodities imports are only permitted at times of year when conditions are not favourable for establishment.||Can be combined with measures that reduce infestation rates in commodities. Likely to be considered together with restricting exports to poor habitats.|
Use of the commodity in the destination market is restricted to limit establishment likelihood.
|Evidence that restricted use limits establishment risk.||Audit of processes to give confidence that commodity is only being used as permitted. This could be challenging given it is no longer within the jurisdiction of the exporting NPPO||End-use may be considered during a PRA but end-use restriction is rarely used as a phytosanitary measure. Examples include only permitting wood chips to be used for biofuel (RSPM 41), only permitting plants to be used under quarantine conditions for scientific purposes, and only permitting the sale of produce such as potatoes and seeds for consumption. In some cases devitalisation will be required to help ensure that produces intended for consumption is not planted.||Differs from post-border processing requirements which was included under measures that reduce infestation rates.|
- Key references will be determined through consultation with biosecurity specialists and added here in the coming months.