There has been increasing interest in adopting BlockChain (BC), that underpins the crypto-currency Bitcoin, in Internet of Things (IoT) for security and privacy. However, BCs are computationally expensive and involve high bandwidth overhead and delays, which are not suitable for most IoT devices. This project, which is a collaboration between Data61 and UNSW, is designing a lightweight BC-based architecture for IoT that virtually eliminates the overheads of classic BC, while maintaining most of its security and privacy benefits. IoT devices benefit from a private immutable ledger, that acts similar to BC but is managed centrally, to optimize energy consumption. High resource devices create an overlay network to implement a publicly accessible distributed BC that ensures end-to-end security and privacy. The proposed architecture uses distributed trust to reduce the block validation processing time.
Our approach has the following features
The table below compares our design to the classic bitcoin blockchain:
|Feature||Bitcoin BlockChain||Immutable Ledger||Public BlockChain|
|Double spending||Not acceptable||Not applicable||Not applicable|
The figure below illustrates the local network design in a smart home scenario:
while the transaction flow is shown in the figure below
This design is being explored for various sectors, from smart home, to automotive and smart grids.
Forbes has recently covered this project in this article.
A. Dorri, M. Steger, S. Kanhere, and R. Jurdak, “BlockChain: A Distributed Solution to Automotive Security and Privacy”, IEEE Communications Magazine, Volume 55, Issue 12, pages 119-125, December, 2017. DOI: 10.1109/MCOM.2017.1700879.
M. Steger, A. Dorri, S. Kanhere, K. Romer, R. Jurdak, and M. Karner, “BlockChains securing Wireless Automotive Software Updates – A proof of concept,” Lecture Notes in Mobility, covering the proceedings of the 21st International Forum on Advanced Microsystems for Automotive Applications (AMAA 2017), Berlin Germany, pages 137-149, August 2017. Paper
A. Dorri, S. Kanhere, and R. Jurdak, “Towards an Optimized BlockChain for IoT,” In proceedings of the 2nd IEEE International Conference on Internet-of-Things Design and Implementation (IoTDI 2017), as part of CPSWeek, Pittsburgh, USA, April, 2017. PDF
A. Dorri, S. Kanhere, R. Jurdak., and P. Gauravaram, “Blockchain for IoT Security and Privacy: The Case Study of a Smart Home,” In proceedings of the 2nd IEEE Workshop on security, privacy, and trust in the Internet of things (PERCOM), Hawaii, USA, March, 2017.