Catalytic Static Mixers – CSMs

Catalytic Static Mixers now available for purchase from:

Precision Catalysts

Merck (Sigma-Aldrich)

The current methods for employing flow chemistry catalysts effectively use miniaturized packed bed reactor geometries, which pose many limitations. At CSIRO, we have overcome these with our innovative 3D printed catalytic static mixers (CSMs).

CSM inserted in 8 mm OD tubing

CSM inserted in 8 mm OD tubing

CSIRO’s flow chemistry catalyst program is directed toward developing a stand alone hydrogenation device based on the Catalytic Static Mixer (CSM) technology. The CSM technology is a radically new approach compared to conventional packed bed or slurry reactors, which presents a series of improvements, including:

  • Robust and flexible mixer design: Additive manufacturing allows the mixer to be tailored to the needs of the fluidic application / chemical reaction. Our 3D printed metal scaffolds have good mechanical stability and can easily be inserted into tubular reactor geometries and replaced multiple times without damage, and they can be retrofitted to existing tubular reactors.
  • Superior process control: Perhaps the biggest advantages of a tubular reactor system is the large L/D ratio which results in superior control of heat and mass transfer along the length of the reactor device, avoiding issues with non-uniformity often plaguing conventional designs, such as packed bed reactors. The tubular channel geometry also ensures that pressure drop is low and that the flow is regular. In contrast, most bed (including trickle beds) or monolith systems, temperature and concentration gradients are highly non-uniform along the cross section. See our comparison between CSMs and packed-bed reactors.
  • One step catalyst coating: Most conventional heterogeneous reactor designs are also made by a complex, often multi-stage synthesis and require elaborate preparation and washing protocols, which are not necessary for CSMs, as the catalytic layer is deposited directly onto the mixer scaffold by electroplating or cold spraying.
  • Scalability: Tubular reactors are easily scalable devices. Batch reactors, monolith reactor systems, and packed bed reactors need considerable additional engineering effort during scale-up from lab / pilot to production; this is a much more linear process using CSMs.

CSIRO is continuing to develop this technology and is looking for:

  • Beta-testers – For example, partners to test one of our devices in the early development stage to provide feedback on user experience.
  • Investors –  The Flow Chemistry market is moving quite quickly and is growing. CSIRO is interested to talk to partners looking to strategically invest in Flow Chemistry start-ups.
  • Free Research Licenses – available for academic labs on our licensing website.
  • Manufacturing and End User licenses – are available on our Marketplace website.

Review Article (Free Access)

Video: CSIRO Catalytic Static Mixers for Hydrogen Applications


  •  Continuous Flow Hydrogenation – 9th Symposium on Continuous Flow Reactor Technology for Industrial Applications, Barcelona, 14-16 Nov 2017. [ddownload id=”407″ style=”link”]


  • “Continuous flow hydrogenations using novel catalytic static mixers inside a tubular reactor”, A. Avril, C.H. Hornung,  A. Urban, D. Fraser, M. Horne, J.-P. Veder, J. Tsanaktsidis, T. Rodopoulos, C. Henry  and  D.R. Gunasegaram , Reaction Chemistry & Engineering, 2017, 2, 180-188. DOI: 10.1039/C6RE00188B.
  • “The use of catalytic static mixers for continuous flow gas-liquid and transfer hydrogenations in organic synthesis”, C.H. Hornung, X. Nguyen, A. Carafa, J. Gardiner, A. Urban, D. Fraser, M.D. Horne, D.R. Gunasegaram, J. Tsanaktsidis, Organic Process Research & Development, 2017, 21, 1311−1319. DOI: 10.1021/acs.oprd.7b00180.
  • “Hydrogenation of vinyl acetate using a continuous flow tubular reactor with catalytic static mixers”, X. Nguyen, A. Carafa and C.H. Hornung, Chemical Engineering and Processing – Process Intensification, 2018, 124, 215-221. DOI: 10.1016/j.cep.2017.12.007.
  • “The art of manufacturing molecules”, C. H. Hornung, Science, 2018, 359, 273–274. DOI: 10.1126/science.aar4543.
    Free Reprint
  • Reductive aminations using a 3D printed supported metal(0) catalyst system“, C. Genet, X. Nguyen, B. Bayatsarmadi, M. D. Horne, J. Gardiner, and C. H. Hornung, J Flow Chem, 2018, 8, 81–88. DOI: 10.1007/s41981-018-0013-6.
  • “Catalytic Static Mixers for the Continuous Flow Hydrogenation of a Key Intermediate of Linezolid (Zyvox)”, J. Gardiner, X. Nguyen, C. Genet, M. D. Horne, C. H. Hornung and J. Tsanaktsidis, Org. Process Res. Dev., 2018, 22, 1448-1452. DOI:10.1021/acs.oprd.8b00153.
  • “Intensifying Diffusion-Limited Reactions by Using Static Mixer Electrodes in a Novel Electrochemical Flow Cell”, B. Bayatsarmadi, M. Horne, T. Rodopoulos and D. Gunasegaram, J. Electrochem. Soc., 2020, 167, 063502. DOI:10.1149/1945-7111/ab7e8f.
  • “Continuous flow semi-hydrogenation of alkynes using 3D printed catalytic static mixers”, M. Kundra, B. Bin Mohamad Sultan, D. Ng, Y. Wang, D. Alexander, X. Nguyen, Z. Xie and C. H. Hornung, Chemical Engineering and Processing – Process Intensification, 2020, 108018. DOI:10.1016/j.cep.2020.108018.
  • Scalable continuous flow hydrogenations using Pd/Al2O3-coated rectangular cross-section 3D-printed static mixers“, R. Lebl, Y. Zhu, D. Ng, C. H. Hornung, D. Cantillo and C. O. Kappe, Catalysis Today, 2020, S0920586120305174. DOI:10.1016/j.cattod.2020.07.046.
  • Continuous Flow Hydrogenation of Flavorings and Fragrances Using 3D-Printed Catalytic Static Mixers“, M. Kundra, T. Grall, D. Ng, Z. Xie and C. H. Hornung,  Ind. Eng. Chem. Res., 2021, 60, 1989–2002, DOI:10.1021/acs.iecr.0c05671.
  • “Performance study and comparison between catalytic static mixer and packed bed in heterogeneous hydrogenation of vinyl acetate”, Y. Zhu, B. Bin Mohamad Sultan, X. Nguyen and C. Hornung, J Flow Chem, 2021, 11, 515–523, DOI:10.1007/s41981-021-00152-7.
  • “3D printed nickel catalytic static mixers made by corrosive chemical treatment for use in continuous flow hydrogenation”, M. Kundra, Y. Zhu, X. Nguyen, D. Fraser, C. Hornung and J. Tsanaktsidis, React. Chem. Eng., 2022, 7, 284-296, DOI:10.1039/D1RE00456E.
  • “3D-Printed Structured Reactor with Integrated Single-Atom Catalyst Film for Hydrogenation”, G. Vilé, D. Ng, Z. Xie, I. Martinez Botella, J. Tsanaktsidis and C. H. Hornung, ChemCatChem, accepted, DOI:10.1002/cctc.202101941. (free access)
  • “Durability Study of 3D-Printed Catalytic Static Mixers for Hydrogenations in Chemical Manufacturing”, R. Legg, C. Zhang, M. Bourchier, S. Cole, I. Martinez-Botella, X. Nguyen, Y. Zhu, W. Liew, S. Saubern, J. Tsanaktsidis and C. H. Hornung,  Chemie Ingenieur Technik, 2022, 94, 1017-1023, DOI:10.1002/cite.202200060. (free access)
  • Valorisation of terpenes by continuous flow hydrogenation over 3D-printed Palladium catalysts“, I. Martinez-Botella, S. Littler, M. Kundra and C. H. Hornung, Tetrahedron Green Chem, 2023, 2, DOI:10.1016/j.tgchem.2023.100014. (free access)
  • “A Multipass Catalytic Reactor Insert for Continuous Hydrogen Generation from Methylcyclohexane”, D. Arora, M. Richards, Y. Zhu, I. Martinez-Botella, X. Wang, Z. Xie, J. Chiefari, S. Saubern and C. Hornung,  Chemical Engineering and Processing – Process Intensification, 2024, 109822, DOI:10.1016/j.cep.2024.109822  .

Biocatalysis with CSMs

  • “Fabricating Bioactive 3D Metal–Organic Framework Devices”, R. Singh, G. Souillard, L. Chassat, Y. Gao, X. Mulet and C. M. Doherty, Advanced Sustainable Systems, n2020a, 2000059, DOI:10.1002/adsu.202000059.