Paper: Neural-Symbolic Probabilistic Argumentation Machines

July 16th, 2020

Neural-symbolic systems combine the strengths of neural networks and symbolic formalisms. In this paper, we introduce a neural-symbolic system which combines restricted Boltzmann machines and probabilistic semi-abstract argumentation.

We propose to train networks on argument labellings explaining the data, so that any sampled data outcome is associated with an argument labelling.

Argument labellings are integrated as constraints within restricted Boltzmann machines, so that the neural networks are used to learn probabilistic dependencies amongst argument labels.

Given a dataset and an argumentation graph as prior knowledge, for every example/case K in the dataset, we use a so-called Kmaxconsistent labelling of the graph, and an explanation of case K refers to a K-maxconsistent labelling of the given argumentation graph.

The abilities of the proposed system to predict correct labellings were evaluated and compared with standard machine learning techniques. Experiments revealed that such argumentation Boltzmann machines can outperform other classification models, especially in noisy settings.

Figure 1: An argumentation graph and one of its complete {I, O, U, F}-labelling. Arguments A and B support argument C. Argument C attacks D, Arguments D and E attack each other.

Regis Riveret, Son Tran, Artur d’Avila Garcez. Neural-Symbolic Probabilistic Argumentation Machines. Proceedings of the 17th International Conference Principles of Knowledge Representation and Reasoning. AAAI Press (2020) 

Download the full paper here.

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