Workshops, resources and publications

The Team offers training for industry in the form of:

  • Industry-focussed short courses
  • Customised one-on-one courses and training session covering the following topics
    • Exploration models for magmatic sulfide deposits
    • Interpretation of lithogeochemical and mineral chemistry data in exploration
    • Komatiites and associated ore deposits

Workshops – Materials

Lithogeochemistry for Exploration – Intrusion Hosted Magmatic Ni-Cu-Co Sulfide Deposits

PowerPoint – Lithochem mafic systems 2022  – Notes on interpretation of whole-rock lithogeochem in exploration for magmatic Ni-Cu-Co sulfide deposits in mafic-ultramafic intrusions. This PowerPoint accompanies the June 2022 issue (#195) of the Explore magazine written by Steve Barnes as well as a full publication in Geochemistry: Exploration, Environment, Analysis. 

Supplementary Material (citation) accompanying the publication includes explanations of re-calculations of assay data as well as spreadsheets to aid in the calculations

A set of diagram templates for IoGas: geochemical discrimination of cumulate rocks is available here** – iogas-diagram-files_20230421_update

For Windows users; Copy the XML files to C:\Users\USERNAME\AppData\Roaming\ioGAS\cache\iod\DiagramAndCalc

(**Please note – the original version of this zip file contained an error on the Cu/Zr plot – this was fixed on 20/4/23, so if you downloaded the zip file before then then you need to replace it – sorry!)


Interpretation of Sulfide Textures

The biennial International Platinum Symposium was held virtually in May 2022. The following workshops, presented by Steve Barnes are available now for you to watch. 
In these two videos, Steve covers a variety of sulfide textures, and how to interpret them to understand formation mechanisms of magmatic sulfide deposits.

Previous workshops and symposia

Magmatic Ni-Cu-Co-PGE Sulfide Mineral Systems: Short Course

Recent advances and current multi-scale thinking
Nov 17-20 2020
Presented by UWA-CET & CSIRO Mineral Resources

14th International Nickel Symposium (online) – Tribute to Prof A.J. Naldrett

Phase 1: Aug-Sept 2020 & Phase 2: Nov 2020
talks are available to watch via YouTube.


The following is a partial list of publications first-authored by past and present team members. If you have any questions or unable to access these publications please contact us

Additional publications and collaborative publications with non-CSIRO first authors can be accessed via our Google Scholar pages: Steve Barnes, Margaux Le Vaillant, Louise Schoneveld, Belinda Godel

Magmatic Sulfide Deposits – general

Magmatic Sulfide Ore Deposits (Elements) – Barnes et al. 2017

Time scales and length scales in magma flow pathways and the origin of magmatic Ni–Cu–PGE ore deposits – Barnes and Robertson, 2019

The mineral system approach applied to magmatic Ni–Cu–PGE sulphide deposits – Barnes et al. 2016

The Occurrence and Origin of Pentlandite-Chalcopyrite-Pyrrhotite Loop Textures in Magmatic Ni-Cu Sulfide Ores – Barnes et al. 2020

Blade-shaped dikes and nickel sulfide deposits: A model for the emplacement of ore-bearing small intrusions – (OPEN ACESS) Barnes and Mungall 2018

Sulfide-silicate textures in magmatic Ni-Cu-PGE sulfide ore deposits: Massive, semi-massive and sulfide-matrix breccia ores – Barnes et al. 2018

Sulfide-silicate textures in magmatic Ni-Cu-PGE sulfide ore deposits: Disseminated and net-textured ores – Barnes et al. 2017

Sulfide-Olivine Fe-Ni Exchange and the Origin of Anomalously Ni Rich Magmatic Sulfides – Barnes et al 2013

Spatial association between platinum minerals and magmatic sulfides imaged with the Maia Mapper and implications for the origin of the chromite-sulfide-PGE association (open access). Barnes et al., 2021

Exploration Tools

Lithogeochemistry in exploration for intrusion-hosted magmatic Ni-Cu-Co deposits: Geochemistry – Exploration, Environment, Analysis, v. 23, doi: 10.1144/geochem2022-025  Barnes 2023 Open access

Zoned Pyroxenes as Prospectivity Indicators for Magmatic Ni-Cu Sulfide Mineralization – (OPEN ACCESS) Schoneveld et al. 2020

Review of Predictive and Detective Exploration Tools for Magmatic Ni-Cu-(PGE) Deposits, With a Focus on Komatiite-Related Systems in Western Australia – Le Vaillant et al. 2018

Review of lithogeochemical exploration tools for komatiite-hosted Ni-Cu-(PGE) deposits – Le Vaillant et al. 2016

Nickel in olivine as an exploration indicator for magmatic Ni-Cu sulfide deposits: a data review and re-evaluation: Barnes et. al. 2023, American Mineralogist, 108, 1-17, doi:10.2138/am-2022-8327

Use and calibration of portable X-Ray fluorescence analysers: application to lithogeochemical exploration for komatiite-hosted nickel sulphide deposits – Le Vaillant et al. 2014


The association between Ni-Cu-PGE sulfides and Ni-Co lateritic ores and volcanic facies within the komatiites of the 2.7 Ga East Yilgarn Craton Large Igneous Province, Western Australia. Gole and Barnes, Ore Geology Reviews, v. 106, online. doi: 10.1016/j.oregeorev.2019.103231

Trace element contents of mantle-derived magmas through time – (OPEN ACCESS) Barnes et al. 2021

Distribution and Geochemistry of Komatiites and Basalts Through the Archean – Barnes and Arndt, 2019

Komatiites and associated rocks of the Kalgoorlie-Leonora region – 2016 Book (PDF)

Chromite in komatiites: 3D morphologies with implications for crystallization mechanisms – Godel et al. 2013

Deposition Mechanisms of Magmatic Sulphide Liquids: Evidence from High-Resolution X-Ray Computed Tomography and Trace Element Chemistry of Komatiite-hosted Disseminated Sulphides – Godel et al. 2013

Komatiite Magmas and Sulfide Nickel Deposits: A Comparison of Variably Endowed Archean Terranes – Barnes and Fiorentini, 2012

Pt and Pd mobility in hydrothermal fluids: Evidence from komatiites and from thermodynamic modelling – Barnes and Liu 2012

Deposit Case Studies

Western Australia Ni-Cu-PGE deposits

Komatiite-hosted deposits

Komatiites and Nickel Sulfide Ores of the Black Swan area, Yilgarn Craton, Western Australia. 2. Geology and Genesis of the Orebodies. Dowling et al. 2004, Mineralium Deposita, 39, 707-728.

Hydrothermal remobilisation around a deformed and remobilised komatiite-hosted Ni-Cu-(PGE) deposit, Sarah’s Find, Agnew Wiluna greenstone belt, Yilgarn Craton, Western Australia – Le Vaillant et al. 2016

Interspinifex Ni Sulfide Ore from the Coronet Shoot, Kambalda: Characterization Using Microbeam X-Ray Fluorescence Mapping and 3-D X-Ray Computed Tomography – Barnes et al. 2016

A hydrothermal Ni-As-PGE geochemical halo around the Miitel komatiite-hosted nickel sulfide deposit, Yilgarn Craton, Western Australia – Le Vaillant et al. 2015

Spatial Variation in Platinum Group Element Concentrations in Ore-Bearing Komatiite at the Long-Victor Deposit, Kambalda Dome, Western Australia: Enlarging the Footprint of Nickel Sulfide Orebodies – Barnes et al. 2013

Mapping bedrock lithologies through in situ regolith using retained element ratios: a case study from the Agnew-Lawlers area, Western Australia – Barnes et al. 2014

Platinum group element and nickel sulphide ore tenors of the Mount Keith nickel deposit, Yilgarn Craton, Australia – Barnes et al. 2012

Sulfides and Sulfarsenides from the Rosie Nickel Prospect, Duketon Greenstone Belt, Western Australia – Godel et al. 2012

Extremely Ni-rich Fe-Ni sulphide assemblages in komatiitic dunite at Betheno, Western Australia: results from synchrotron X-ray fluorescence mapping – Barnes et al. 2011

Nova-Bollinger, Western Australia

Nova – Bollinger Ni – Cu Sulfide Ore Deposits, Fraser Zone, Western Australia: Petrogenesis of the Host Intrusions. Taranovic et al., 2022

Isotopic investigations of the Nova-Bollinger Ni-Cu-Co ores and host rocks in the Albany Fraser Orogen, Western Australia. Australian Journal of Earth Sciences, online. Taranovic et al. 2022

Compositions and Ni-Cu-PGE tenors of Nova-Bollinger ores with implications for the origin of Pt anomalies in PGE-poor massive sulfides – Barnes et al. 2022

Sulfide Emplacement and Migration in the Nova-Bollinger Ni-Cu-Co Deposit, Albany-Fraser Orogen, Western Australia – Barnes et al. 2020

Reaction coronas at olivine-plagioclase contacts in host rocks from the Nova-Bollinger Ni-Cu-Co deposit, Albany-Fraser Orogen, Western Australia: evidence of a magmatic to metamorphic continuum. Torres-Rodriguez et al 2021

Bushveld Complex, Africa

Spatial association between platinum minerals and magmatic sulfides imaged with the Maia Mapper and implications for the origin of the chromite-sulfide-PGE association (open access). Barnes et al., 2021

Idiomorphic oikocrysts of clinopyroxene produced by a peritectic reaction within a solidifcation front of the Bushveld Complex – Barnes et al. 2021

Monts de Cristal, Africa

Primary cumulus platinum minerals in the Monts de Cristal Complex, Gabon: magmatic microenvironments inferred from high-definition X-ray fluorescence microscopy – Barnes et al. 2016

Norilsk-Talnakh, Siberia

The role of volatiles in intrusion emplacement and sulfide deposition in the supergiant Norilsk-Talnakh ore deposits – Barnes et al. 2023

Oxide-Sulfide-Melt-Bubble Interactions in Spinel-Rich Taxitic Rocks of the Norilsk-Talnakh Intrusions, Polar Siberia – Schoneveld et al. 2020

Silicate and Oxide Mineral Chemistry and Textures of the Norilsk-Talnakh Ni-Cu-Platinum Group Element Ore-Bearing Intrusions – Schoneveld et al. 2020

Droplets and Bubbles: Solidification of Sulphide-rich Vapour-saturated Orthocumulates in the Norilsk-Talnakh Ni–Cu–PGE Ore-bearing Intrusions – Barnes et al. 2019

Role of degassing of the Noril’sk nickel deposits in the Permian–Triassic mass extinction event – Le Vaillant et al. 2017

Aguablanca, Spain

Textural development in sulfide-matrix ore breccias in the Aguablanca Ni-Cu deposit, Spain, revealed by X-ray fluorescence microscopy – Barnes et al. 2018

Voisey’s Bay, Canada

Textural development in sulfide-matrix ore breccias in the Voisey’s Bay Ni-Cu-Co deposit, Labrador, Canada – Barnes et al. 2017

Ntaka Hill, Tanzania

Nickel-Copper Sulfide Mineralization in the Ntaka Hill Ultramafic Complex, Nachingwea Region, Tanzania – Barnes et al. 2019

Poikilitic Textures, Heteradcumulates and Zoned Orthopyroxenes in the Ntaka Ultramafic Complex, Tanzania: Implications for Crystallization Mechanisms of Oikocrysts – (OPEN ACCESS) Barnes et al. 2016

Kevitsa, Finland

Simplifying drill-hole domains for 3D geochemical modelling: An example from the Kevitsa Ni-Cu-(PGE) deposit – Le Vaillant et al. 2017

Effects of hydrous alteration on the distribution of base metals and platinum group elements within the Kevitsa magmatic nickel sulphide deposit – Le Vaillant et al. 2016

Skaergaard, Greenland

New constraints on the origin of the Skaergaard intrusion Cu–Pd–Au mineralization: Insights from high-resolution X-ray computed tomography – Godel et al. 2014

Mirabela, Brazil

The Santa Rita Nickel Sulfide Deposit in the Fazenda Mirabela Intrusion, Bahia, Brazil: Geology, Sulfide Geochemistry, and Genesis – Barnes et al. 2011