During the Step 1 decision-making case studies, the ENB and WNB Provincial Administrations nominated priority large scale development issues which they wanted to address in Step 4 Pilot planning. The ENB Provincial Administration selected oil palm development as their focus. The WNB Provincial Administration selected tourism development, because Kimbe Bay and WNB has recently been highlighted as one of three priority locations in the CTI for the development of nature-based tourism (Coral Triangle Sustainable Nature-based Tourism Project 2017). One of the justifications for the selection of WNB is the network of LMMAs in Kimbe Bay, which potentially protect coastal biodiversity and hence provide a resource for tourism. In addition, tourism may provide a source of sustainable financing for LMMAs, which is a major weakness of the network (Wise et al. 2014b).
The ENB Provincial Administration prioritised oil palm development to be the focus of Step 4 pilot planning activities (Photo: Nate Peterson)
The WNB Provincial Administration prioritised tourism development and LMMAs to be the focus of Step 4 pilot planning activities (Photo: Tom Greenwood)
Two pilot planning workshops were held in each province. In ENB, LLGs which were the focus of recent and ongoing oil palm growth were selected as case studies: East Pomio and Sinivit LLGs (Butler et al. 2016), and Inland and Lassul Baining LLGs. In WNB, Central and East Nakanai LLGs were selected because the Coral Triangle Sustainable Nature-based Tourism Project highlighted tourism attractions in these LLGs (Butler et al. 2017a). The second workshop reviewed the Kimbe Bay LMMAs and their governance to better integrate tourism opportunities (Butler et al. 2017b). Based on the results of the Step 1 decision-making case studies, a cross-section of decision-makers and stakeholders were invited. The workshops were designed to empower those stakeholders that had previously been marginalised, to improve networks and coordination between key decision makers, and to build knowledge and awareness of current and future rapid change and uncertainty, and its implications for development.
The workshops were organised into five sessions over two days. Sessions were designed to encourage social learning amongst participants, to integrate participants’ varied knowledge, and to identify actions to manage development in the context of rapid change and future uncertainty, in order to achieve communities’ visions. This process has been successfully developed and refined by the team in PNG since 2007 (Butler et al. 2014b), including the CTI WNB Livelihood Futures project (Butler et al. 2012, 2013a, 2013b, 2015).
Participants at the Central and East Nakanai LLGs tourism pilot planning workshop, WNB (Photo: Tom Greenwood)
The Step 4 pilot planning workshop sessions and outputs (in italics), with tourism development as an example
A Business as Usual development scenario for East Pomio LLG, ‘In Silent Agony’
Participants using values maps to identify the potential future benefits and costs of a tourism development in Central and East Nakanai LLG, WNB, under the Business as Usual scenario (Photo: Tom Greenwood)
The potential issues surrounding the introduction of a jetty and infrastructure for tourist diving, noted by participants onto a map of socio-cultural values (Photo: Tom Greenwood)